Steel Grade 316 316L 316H

316 316L 316H

Grade 316 is the standard molybdenum-bearing austenitic grade, second stainless steel in importance to 304. The molybdenum gives 316 better overall corrosion resistant properties than Grade 304, particularly higher resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride environments. It is readily brake or roll formed, welded, soldered and cut by both thermal and mechanical methods. The austenitic structure gives excellent toughness, even down to cryogenic temperatures.

Grade 316L, the low carbon version of 316, is highly resistant to sensitisation (grain boundary carbide precipitation) and so is extensively used in heavy gauge welded components (about 5mm and over). Grade 316H, with its higher carbon content has some application at elevated temperatures, as does stabilised grade 316Ti. Nitrogen-strengthened versions also exist as 316N and 316LN. Only 316 and 316L are readily available in Australian stock.

Corrosion Resistance

Excellent in a range of atmospheric environments and many corrosive media – generally more resistant than 304. Subject to pitting and crevice corrosion in warm chloride environments, and to stress corrosion cracking above about 60°C. Considered resistant to pitting corrosion in potable water with up to about 1000mg/L chlorides at ambient temperatures, reducing to about 300mg/L at 60°C.

316 is usually regarded as the standard “marine grade” stainless steel, but it is not fully resistant to sea water. In many marine environments 316 does exhibit surface corrosion, usually visible as brown staining. This is particularly associated with crevices and rough surface finish. Consult Atlas Technical Assistance for specific environmental recommendations.

There is usually no difference in corrosion resistance between 316 and 316L.

Heat Resistance

Good oxidation resistance in intermittent service to 870°C and in continuous service to 925°C. Continuous use of 316 in the 425-860°C range is not recommended if subsequent aqueous corrosion resistance is important. Grade 316L is more resistant to carbide precipitation and can be used in the above temperature range. Grade 316H has higher strength at elevated temperatures and is sometimes used for structural and pressurecontaining applications at temperatures above about 500°C, but the titanium stabilised grade 316Ti is often a more appropriate choice.

Heat Treatment Solution Treatment (Annealing)

Heat to 1010-1120°C and cool rapidly. These grades cannot be hardened by thermal treatment.

Welding

Excellent weldability by all standard fusion methods, both with and without filler metals. AS 1554.6 pre-qualifies welding of 316 with Grade 316 and 316L with Grade 316L rods or electrodes (or their high silicon equivalents). Heavy welded sections in Grade 316 require post-weld annealing for maximum corrosion resistance. This is not required for 316L. Grade 316Ti may also be used as an alternative to 316 for heavy section welding.

Machining

A “Ugima” improved machinability version of grade 316 is available in round and hollow bar products. Ugima machines significantly better than standard 316 or 316L, giving higher machining rates and lower tool wear in many operations.

Dual Certification

It is common for 316 and 316L to be stocked in “Dual Certified” form, particularly in plate, pipe and round bar. These items have chemical and mechanical properties complying with both 316 and 316L specifications. Such dual certified product may be unacceptable for high temperature applications.

Typical Applications

Food processing equipment. Laboratory equipment. Architectural panelling, railings & trim. Boat fittings. Chemical containers. Heat exchangers. Screens for mining, quarrying & water filtration. Threaded fasteners. Springs.

Specified Properties

These properties are specified for flat rolled product (plate, sheet and coil) in ASTM A240/A240M. Similar but not necessarily identical properties are specified for other products such as pipe and bar in their respective specifications.

Composition Specification (%)
GradeCMnSiPSCrMoNiN
316min.
max.
-
0.08
-
2.0
-
0.75
-
0.045
-
0.030
16.0
18.0
2.00
3.00
10.0
14.0
-
0.10
316Lmin.
max.
-
0.030
-
2.0
-
0.75
-
0.045
-
0.030
16.0
18.0
2.00
3.00
10.0
14.0
-
0.10
316Hmin.
max.
0.04
0.10
-
2.0
-
0.75
-
0.045
-
0.030
16.0
18.0
2.00
3.00
10.0
14.0
-
-
Mechanical Property Specification
GradeTensile Hardness
Strength (MPa) min
Yield Strength
0.2% Proof (MPa) min
Elongation
(% in 50mm) min
Hardness 
Rockwell B
(HR B) max
Brinell
(HB) max
3165152054095217
316L485 1704095217
316H5152054095217
316H also has a requirement for a grain size of ASTM No 7 or coarser.
Physical Properties

(typical values in the annealed condition)

GradeDensity (kg/m3)Elastic Modulus Mean Coefficient of Thermal ExpansionThermal ConductivitySpecific HeatElectrical Resistivity
(GPa)0-100°C
(m/m/°C)
0-315°C
(m/m/°C)
0-538°C
(m/m/°C)
at 100°C
(W/m.K)
at 500°C
(W/m.K)
0-100°C
( J/kg.K)
(n.m)
316 &
316L/H
8000 19315.916.2 17.5 16.321.5 500740
Grade Specification Comparison
GradeUNS
No
EuronormSwedish
SS
Japanese
JIS
NoName
316S31600 1.4401X5CrNiMo17-12-22347 SUS 316
316LS316031.4404X2CrNiMo17-12-22348SUS 316L
316HS31609----
These comparisons are approximate only. The list is intended as a comparison of functionally similar materials not as a schedule of contractual equivalents. If exact equivalents are needed original specifications must be consulted.
Possible Alternative Grades
GradeWhy it might be chosen instead of 316
316TiBetter resistance to temperatures of around 600-900°C is needed.
316NHigher strength than standard 316
317LHigher resistance to chlorides than 316L, but with similar resistance to stress corrosion cracking.
F18MS / 444Lower cost in thin gauge sheet and coil. F18MS (444) is a readily fabricated ferritic grade.
904LMuch higher resistance to chlorides at elevated temperatures, with good formability
2205Much higher resistance to chlorides at elevated temperatures, and higher strength.
Limitation of Liability

The information contained in this datasheet is not an exhaustive statement of all relevant information. It is a general guide for customers to the products and services available from Atlas Steels and no representation is made or warranty given in relation to this document or the products or processes it describes.

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