Grade 410 is the basic martensitic stainless steel; like most non-stainless steels it can be hardened by a “quench-and-temper” heat treatment. It contains a minimum of 11.5 per cent chromium, just sufficient to give corrosion resistance properties. It achieves maximum corrosion resistance when it has been hardened and tempered and then polished. Grade 410 is a general purpose grade often supplied in the hardened, but still machinable condition, for applications where high strength and moderate heat and corrosion resistance are required.
Martensitic stainless steels are optimised for high hardness, and other properties are to some degree compromised. Fabrication must be by methods that allow for poor weldability and usually the need for a final heat treatment. Corrosion resistance of the martensitic grades is lower than that of the common austenitic grades, and their useful operating temperature range is limited by their loss of ductility at subzero temperatures and loss of strength by over-tempering at elevated temperatures.
Grade 410 is usually a bar steel, most commonly only available in Australia when imported for a particular application.
410 resists dry atmosphere, fresh water, mild alkalies and acids, food, steam and hot gases. It must be hardened for maximum heat and corrosion resistance. Performance is best with a smooth surface finish. This grade has less corrosion resistance than the austenitic grades and also less than 17% chromium ferritic alloys such as Grade 430.
Consult Atlas Technical Assistance for specific environmental recommendations.
Good resistance to scaling up to approximately 650°C, but generally not recommended for use in temperatures between 400 and 580°C, because of the reduction in mechanical properties.
815-900°C, slow furnace cool to 600°C and then air cool.
650-760°C and air cool.
Heat to 925-1010°C, followed by quenching in oil or air. Oil quenching is necessary for heavy sections. Temper, generally within the range 200-400°C, to obtain a variety of hardness values and mechanical properties as indicated in the accompanying table.
The tempering range 400-580°C should generally be avoided.
Readily welded by all standard methods, but a pre-heat of 150-260°C and post-weld annealing treatment is required to reduce the possibility of cracking. Use Grade 410 welding rod if post hardening and tempering is involved. If parts are to be used in the “as welded” condition, a ductile joint can be achieved by using Grade 309 filler rods.
AS 1554.6 pre-qualifies welding of 410 with Grade 309 rods or electrodes.
In the annealed or highly tempered conditions Grade 410 is relatively easily machined, but if hardened to above 30HRC machining becomes more difficult. Free machining Grade 416 (refer to the Atlas Steels Datasheet) is a very readily machined alternative, but with lower corrosion resistance and mechanical properties.
Bolts, nuts, screws, bushings. Pump and valve parts and shafts. Steam and gas turbine parts. Petroleum fractionating towers. Mine ladder rungs.